Instructions to authors


 I. Submission

(1) Manuscripts for publication must be submitted in properly edited English (British ‘ise’ version).

(2) Manuscripts for publication should be submitted via (follow instructions for authors if you have any problem with submission). Submission of a paper will be held to imply that it contains your independent work. The Editor does not accept responsibility for the damage or loss of papers submitted. Upon the acceptance of an article, author(s) will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the publisher by filling, signing and uploading Open Access License available at: This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information.

(3) All submissions must be in Microsoft Word format.

II. General instructions

(4) DO NOT put your name or any contact information on the first page of the manuscript.

(5) The first page of the manuscript should contain the following information: (i) the title; (ii) an abstract of not more than 150 words; (iii) maximum of 5 keywords; (iv) at least one and no more than three classification codes according to the Classification System for Journal Articles as used by the Journal of Economic Literature ( 

(6) Formatting:

- Font: Times New Roman (size 12 regular),
- Margins: Normal.
- Alignment: justified.
- Headings:           Title of the Paper (14pt Times New Roman, Bold, Centered)
                               The Heading of Each Section (12pt Times New Roman, Bold, left justified)
                               The Heading of Each Subsection (12pt Times New Roman, italic, left justified)
                               The Heading of Each Sub-Subsection (12pt Times New Roman, left justified)
- Figures and Tables titles: Figure 1:/Table 1: Figure/table title (11pt Times New Roman, left justified)

(7) Manuscripts should be double spaced, and printed on one side of the paper only. All pages should be numbered consecutively.

(8) Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Titles and subtitles should be short.

(9) Acknowledgments and information on grants received can be given in a footnote on the FIRST page of the manuscript.

(10) Endnotes (please use endnotes instead of footnotes) should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals. They should be double spaced and not include displayed formulae or tables.

(11) Displayed formulae should be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript as (1) (2) etc. against the right-hand margin of the page. In cases where the derivation of formulae has been abbreviated, it is of great help to the referees if the full derivation can be presented on a separate sheet (not to be published).

(12) Illustrations will be reproduced photographically from originals supplied by the author; they will not be redrawn by the publisher. Figures, graphs, pictures, etc. should be high-quality GRAYSCALE graphics (please, do NOT use colours). Care should be taken that lettering and symbols are of a comparable size. The illustrations should be inserted in the text, and should be marked with figure number and title. All graphs and diagrams should be referred to as figures, and should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.

(13) Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.  All tables should be inserted in the text, and should be marked with table number and title.

(14) Descriptions of material that would be useful for readers to understand or revise the paper should be provided in the appendix at the end of the paper (before endnotes and references).

(15) Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication. Only if necessary, the page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. Proofs should be corrected carefully; the responsibility for detecting errors lies with the author. Corrections should be restricted to instances in which the proof is at variance with the manuscript.

(16) Extensive alterations are not allowed.

III. References

(17) References to publications should be as follows: ‘Smith (1992) reported that...’ or ‘This problem has been studied previously (e.g. Smith et al., 1969)’. The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those on the list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text (after any appendices, but before tables and legends for figures). It should be double spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author’s name. References should appear in the APA style[1]. The following sections give detailed instructions on citing books, journal articles, newspaper articles, conference papers, theses, webpages and others.

Please provide all the required elements in the references to your paper. Please pay particular attention to spelling, capitalization and punctuation. Accuracy and completeness of references are the responsibilities of the author. Before submitting your article, please ensure you have checked your paper for any relevant references you may have missed. A complete reference should give the reader enough information to find the relevant article.

  1. Book
  1. Book (one author)

Author. (Year of publication). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.

  1. Book (two or more authors)

Author1, Author2 & Author3. (Year of publication). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. & Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.

  1. Book chapter or article in an edited book

Author(s) of chapter. (Year of publication). Chapter title. In Editors of the book (Eds.), Book title (Chapter page range). Place of publication: Publisher.
Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley & H.L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.

  1. Proceedings from a conference

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title. In Conference name, Date (Page range). Place of publication: Publisher.
Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.

  1. ebook

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title. Publisher. Retrieving date, http address. DOI.
Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

  1. Thesis

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title. Information, Place of publication.
Begg, M. M. (2001). Dairy farm women in the Waikato 1946-1996: Fifty years of social and structural change. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

  1. Report

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Report number)
Osgood, D. W., & Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS)

  1. Government publication

Institution name. (Year of publication). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

  1. Article
  1.  Journal Article (one author)

Author. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title. Volume (issue), range of pages. DOI.
Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.

  1.  Journal Article (two or more authors)

Author1, Author2 & Author3. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title. Volume (issue), range of pages. DOI.
Cudak, M. & Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.

  1. Journal article from an online database

Author(s). (Year of publication). Article title [Electronic version]. Journal Title. Volume (issue), range of pages. Retrieved date of access, from name of database. DOI.
Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6, 2006, from PubMed database on the World Wide Web: DOI: 10.2478/s11658-006-0061-z.

  1.  Newspaper article (no author)

Article title. (Publication date). Journal Title. page.
Amazing Amazon region. (1989, January 12). New York Times, p. D11.

  1. Encyclopedia article

Author. (Year of publication). Article title. In Encyclopedia title (volume number, pages). Place of publication: Encyclopedia name.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

  1. Other formats
    1. Web page

Author/Sponsor. (last update or copyright date). Title. Retrieved date of access, from URL.
Walker, J. (1996, August). APA-style citations of electronic resources. Retrieved November 21, 2001, from

  1. Lecture note

Author(s). (Date of presentation). Lecture title. Lecture notes distributed in the unit, at the name of the teaching organisation, the location.
Liffers, M. (2006, August 30). Finding information in the library. Lecture notes distributed in the unit Functional Anatomy and Sports Performance 1102, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia.

  1. Patent

Author. (Year). Patent number. The location. Issue body.
Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  1. Standard

Issue body. (Year). Standard name. Standard number. The location.
Standards Association of Australia. (1997). Australian standard: Pressure equipment manufacture. AS4458-1997. North Sydney.

  1. Video

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.
Zhang, Y. (Producer/Director). (2000). Not one less [Motion Picture].China: Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.

  1. Audio recording

Songwriter, W. W. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).
Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited.

  1. Mailing list

Author. (Exact date of posting). Subject line of message. Message posted to followed by name of mailing list, archived at followed by address for the archived version of the message
Hammond, T. (2000, November 20). YAHC: Handle Parameters, DOI Genres, etc. Message posted to Ref-Links electronic mailing list, archived at

  1. Computer software

Author(s). (Year). Title [computer software]. The location: Company.
Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth.
Note: Two copies of the Review and offprints of each paper are supplied free of charge to the corresponding author.